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9.4. Diagrams of Nuclei of Hydrogen Atom

 

A nucleus of the hydrogen atom is known to consist of one proton (Fig. 21, a). Hydrogen, which nucleus has one proton and one neutron, is called deuterium (Fig. 21, b). If the hydrogen atom has one proton and two neutrons, such atom is called tritium (Fig. 21, c). Let us retrace the process of formation of the nuclei of deuterium and tritium taking into consideration the above-mentioned principle of connection of the protons with the neutrons [121].

The approach of the proton P and the neutron N is shown in Fig. 21, b. The approach takes place due to the influence of the magnetic forces formed by magnetic fields of unlike magnetic poles of the proton and the neutron. There are no forces here, which could prevent the approach of these particles. As a result, a deuterium nucleus is obtained (Fig. 21, b). If the magnetic fields of the proton and the neutron are symmetrical, such structure should be stable. There are 0.015% of the deuterium nuclei in the nature. The approach of the proton and two neutrons and the formation of the atomic nucleus of tritium are shown in Fig. 21, c. There are only of the tritium nuclei in the nature [27], [120], [130].

 

 

Fig. 21. Diagrams of approach of the neutrons and the protons due to the influence of their magnetic forces

 

If the proton has the form of torus and the form of the neutron is approximate to a spherical one, the diagrams of the nuclei of deuterium and tritium can be presented as the most juxtaposed spherical formations (Fig. 21, b and c) [121].

If we take into account great strength of magnetic fields of the proton and the neutron near their geometrical centres, the magnetic forces, which juxtapose these particles, will correspond to nuclear forces during arrangement of the nuclei shown in Fig. 21, b and c [121].

Thus, the insignificant quantity of the nuclei of deuterium and tritium in the nature (as compared with the number of the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms, which consist of one proton) shows that the structure of magnetic field of the neutron differs from the structure of magnetic field of the proton. Let us try to find these differences using the formation of the atomic nuclei of the chemical elements, which follow hydrogen, as the examples.

Previously, let us note an attempt of the author [120] to use the quantum numbers, which originate from Schroedingers equation, for the formation of the atomic nuclei. The analysis of his attempts shows that their results have proved to be fruitless as well as the aspiration of the chemists to distribute the electrons in the atoms according to the levels corresponding to the marked quantum numbers. Nevertheless, his work concerning the arrangement of the atomic nuclei of chemical elements is a good reference guide.

 

 

 

9.5. Diagram of Nuclei of the Helium Atom

 

Let us pay attention to a very important difference between the electric fields and the magnetic fields. It is known that electric fields are easily screened. It is much more difficult to screen magnetic fields. It appears from this that when the electric fields of, say, two protons are screened, it is possible to weaken electrostatic repulsive forces acting between them [121].

What particles screen electrostatic forces of the protons in the atomic nuclei? The neutrons, of course, nothing, but the neutrons. The simplest diagram of the helium atom can be such as it is shown in Fig. 22, a.

 

 

Fig. 22. Diagrams of the nuclei of the helium atom

 

 

If the neutron is between two protons (Fig. 22, a), it will screen their electrical fields and, consequently, will weaken electrostatic repulsive forces. As the magnetic fields are penetrable for the neutron, the presence of the neutron between two protons will weaken the electrostatic forces, which repel the protons, and weaken the magnetic forces, which juxtapose them, to a lesser degree. The structure, which consists of two protons and one neutron and is the nucleus of the isotope of the helium atom, is formed (Fig. 22, a). There are 0.000138% of the helium atoms, which have such nucleus, in the nature [120], [121].

The second variant of formation of the nucleus of the helium atom is shown in Fig. 22, b. Here two neutrons screen the electric fields of two protons. Such diagram of the nucleus of the helium atom can be considered more preferable, because in such diagram of arrangement of the nucleus the electrostatic repulsive forces, which act between two protons, are weakened greater than in the diagram shown in Fig. 22, a. Besides, in this diagram both protons have free magnetic poles for the interaction with the electrons.

It should be noted that in the majority of the nuclear reactions the nucleus of the helium atom is released in the form of a positively charged formation called an alpha particle (Fig. 22, b). Ordinal number 2 of the chemical element helium belongs to a row of magic numbers, which characterize particular stability of the nucleus of this element. The next magic numbers are 8 and 20. Later on well consider the structure of the nucleus of the oxygen atom with the magic number 8 and the nucleus of the calcium atom with the magic number 20, and well see that their geometrical symmetry serves a reason of stability of these nuclei [120], [121].

In the variants of the possible arrangement of the nucleus of the helium atom (Fig. 22), the neutrons screen a part of electric field lines of the protons. Due to it, the electrostatic repulsive forces of the protons are reduced. The value of the magnetic forces, which connect the protons and the neutrons, remains almost the same, and its provides durability and stability for such assemblage of the particles.

The number of the helium atoms, which nuclei consist of two protons and two neutrons (Fig. 22, b), is 99.999862%. Lifetime of the helium atoms, which nuclei have 4 or 6 neutrons, is calculated in milliseconds [27], [120], [121].

 

 

9.6. Structure of the Nucleus of the Lithium Atom

 

If the nature is guided by a principle of geometrical symmetry during the formation of the atomic nuclei, a question arises: in what sequence does it build a nucleus of the lithium atom? Of course, the nucleus of simpler helium atom serves as a base during the construction of the lithium nucleus. In order to make a nucleus of the lithium atom out of a nucleus of the helium atom, it is necessary to add one proton and one neutron to the nucleus of the helium atom. If the arrangement of the nucleus is carried out at the expense of symmetrical magnetic fields of the proton and the neutron, the diagrams of the nucleus of the lithium atom will be such as they are shown in Fig. 23, a, b. In the nature, 92.5% of the nuclei of the lithium atom have three protons and four neutrons (Fig. 23, a). The rest 7.50% of the nuclei of lithium have three neutrons and three protons each (Fig. 23, b).

 

 

 

 

Fig. 23. Diagrams of the nuclei of the lithium atom

 

 

 

Why does Nature prefer the compositions of the nuclei of the lithium atom, which are shown in Fig. 23, a and b? Because the protons and the neutrons in the atomic nucleus connect magnetic force, not nuclear forces. The most important fact is that the majority of lithium atoms have four neutrons, not three (Fig. 23, a). An unexpected conclusion results from this diagram: magnetic field of the neutron is formed by four magnetic poles minimum. This supposition is made, because in the diagram of Fig. 23, a, the central neutron has three contacts, which correspond to three magnetic poles. The fourth contact of this neutron is free, it corresponds to the fourth magnetic pole, to which the neutrons of the isotopes of the lithium atom are connected [120], [121].

The isotopes of the lithium atoms can have up to five extra neutrons in the nucleus, but lifetime of such atoms is calculated in milliseconds. The majority of the lithium atoms have the nuclei, which are shown in Fig. 23, a. It is explained by the fact that the protons and the neutrons connect their magnetic forces. Let us pay attention once again to the quantity of contacts between the neutrons and the protons in the diagram in Fig. 23, a. Each proton has only one contact with the neutron being formed by one of its two magnetic poles. One could think that the neutron has two magnetic poles as well, but the middle neutron, which has three occupied contacts and one potentially free one, gives us the reason to suppose that it has a compound magnetic field, which consists of four magnetic poles minimum.

 

 

 

9.7. Structure of Nucleus of Beryllium Atom

 

Let us pay attention to the structure of the nucleus of the beryllium atom (Fig. 24, a) being built on the supposition that the nuclear forces connect the protons and the neutrons in the nucleus. It consists of four protons and four neutrons. Its is rather symmetrical structure. But there are no beryllium atoms with such nucleus in the nature. The results of the nuclear experimental spectroscopy show that 100% of the natural beryllium atoms have the nuclei with four protons and five neutrons (Fig. 24, b). We do not consider the structure of the artificial isotopes of this element with a short lifetime [27], [120], [121].

 

 

 

 

Fig. 24. Diagrams of possible composition of the nucleus of the beryllium atom

 

 

Thus, the absence of the beryllium nuclei with the nuclear structure, which is shown in Fig. 24, a, in the nature gives an additional confirmation of the absence of the nuclear forces.

The structure of the nucleus of the beryllium atom shown in Fig. 24,b gives additional evidences of connection of the neutrons and the protons by means of unlike magnetic poles of these particles. This diagram proves significance of the screening functions of the neutron and complexity of its magnetic field.

In Fig. 24,b the central neutron has four contacts. It means that the structure of magnetic field of the neutron has four magnetic poles in one plane: two south poles and two north poles [120], [121].

 

 




       
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The Foundations of Physchemistry of Microworld

Copyright 2003 Kanarev Ph. M.

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