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10.6. Structure of the Beryllium Atom

 

When we define the structure of the atoms, we are guided by the results of the analysis of experimental optical spectroscopy, from which it appears that the electron in the atom has no orbital movement and interacts with the nucleus with the axis of its rotation. Please, pay attention to the structure of the symmetrical nucleus of the beryllium atom (Fig. 26). It consists of four protons and five neutrons.

The atom of the chemical element beryllium is also symmetrical as its nucleus (Fig. 57). As all four protons of the nucleus are situated on its surface and each of them has one free magnetic pole, the electrons are connected to these poles.

Let us make a table of binding energies of all electrons of the beryllium atom (Table 33). Let us remind that binding energy of the first electron of this atom with the nucleus, which corresponds to the first energy level, is equal to =64.67 eV, of the second one - =56.26 eV, of the third one - =120.89 eV, of the fourth one - =217.71 eV.

 

 

Table 33. Binding energy of the electron of the hydrogen atom and of the first, the second, the third and the fourth electrons of the beryllium atom Be with the nucleus

 

n

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

13.6

3.40

1.51

0.85

0.54

0.38

0.28

0.21

0.17

1

16.17

4.04

1.80

1.01

0.65

0.45

0.33

0.25

0.20

2

56.26

14.06

6.25

3.52

2.25

1.56

1.15

0.88

0.69

3

120.89

30.22

13.43

7.56

4.83

3.36

2.47

1.89

1.49

4

217.71

54.43

24.19

13.6

8.71

6.05

4.44

3.40

2.69

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

n

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

0.14

0.11

0.09

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.05

0.04

1

0.16

0.12

0.10

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.05

0.04

2

0.56

0.46

0.39

0.33

0.29

0.25

0.22

0.19

0.17

3

1.21

1.00

0.84

0.72

0.62

0.54

0.47

0.42

0.37

4

2.18

1.80

1.51

1.29

1.11

0.97

0.85

0.75

0.67

 

 

As example we calculate the binding energy for the forth electron and its 14-th energy level. (see Table 33). For the third electron and its 17-th energy level we have (see Table 33).

Well not give similar calculations according to the formulas (247) and (248) for all electrons, but well note that the determined regularities remain in this case as well. It is natural that the calculation error is increased when the atom and its nucleus become more complicated. It is explained by the fact that when the atom and its nucleus become more complicated. It is explained by the fact that when one or two electrons interact with the nucleus of the atom with many protons the screening effect of the neutrons is increased. The analysis of regularity of this increase waits for its investigator.

The analysis of Table 33 shows that when the number of energy level is increased in the spectra of the second, the third and the fourth electrons, the energy values appear, which are close to the energy values of the hydrogen atom at its high energy levels. Indirectly, it proves the fact that if all electrons are in the atom, their binding energies with the nuclei are approximately equal and close to binding energies of the electron of the hydrogen atom with its nucleus. It is a very important consequence. It points out to the fact that each electron of one atom can be connected with the electrons of another atom generating almost similar binding energies on the like energy levels.

 

 

 

 


2

 

 

 

 

1 3

 

 

 

 

4

 

Fig. 57. Diagram of the structure of the beryllium nucleus and atom: 1, 2, 3 and 4 are the numbers of the electrons

 

 

In connection with the above-mentioned facts, a question arises: is it reasonable to calculate binding energies of all electrons of the atom taking into account ionization energy of each of them? It is unlikely. Binding energies calculated in such a way belong to such state of the atom when one, two and more electrons are absent in it. In such a state, the atom can be at the temperature, which brings it into a plasma state. As this state corresponds to a very high temperature, at which usually no chemical reactions take place, the necessity in such calculation is reduced.

It is much more important to know binding energies of any electron of any atom for the sate when the majority of chemical reactions take place. In such state the atom has all electrons, and their binding energies with the nuclei are close to binding energies of the electron of the hydrogen atom. Thats why during further analysis of the structures of the atoms well calculate the spectra and determine binding energies with the atomic nuclei only for the first electrons, which have the least ionization potential. They are the main valency electrons of the atoms.

 

 

 

10.7. Structure of the Boron Atom

 

The boron atom is the fifth element in the periodic law. The majority of the nuclei of this atom have five protons and six neutrons (Fig. 25, b). The nucleus of the boron atom has one axis of symmetry. The atom of this chemical element has similar structure (Fig. 58). Five protons have free magnetic poles, to which the electrons are attached.

 

 

Fig. 58. Structure of the Boron atom

 

 

The axis of the first electron, which passes through the atomic nucleus, is the only axis of its symmetry. Later on, well see that more complicated atoms have several axes of symmetry.

 

 

 

10.8. Structure of the Carbon Atom

 

Carbon is considered to the basis of life, because it forms the largest number of bonds with the atoms of other chemical elements. Let us define the cause of its activity. The nucleus of the carbon atom has two forms. The first form of the nucleus, which includes six neutrons, forms the atoms of graphite (Fig. 26, a). The second, spatial form of the nucleus has seven neutrons. It forms the nuclei of diamond (Fig. 26, b). Each proton has a free magnetic pole to be connected with the electron.

All six protons of the nucleus of the carbon atom and its all six electrons of the atom have equal possibilities to be connected with the electrons of other atoms and to form complex combinations. The carbon atoms with a flat nucleus (Fig. 59, a) form organic combinations, in which all six electrons of this atom take part in the formation of bonds between the atoms of various molecules.

The structure of the atom of diamond, which is formed from the spatial nucleus of this atom, has free axes of symmetry (Fig. 59, b). They are the axes of the Cartesian coordinate system. The structure of spatial nucleus and atom of carbon and the atom itself demonstrate the main property of diamond: its strength.

 

 

 

 

Fig. 59. Flat a) and spatial b) structure of the carbon atom: N is nucleus; e are electrons; XYZ are the axes of the Cartesian coordinate system

 

 

 

 

10.9. Structure of Nitrogen Atom

 

Nitrogen is the seventh element in the periodic law of elements arranged in its fifth period. Structure of its nucleus is shown in Fig. 27. In its form, it is similar to the structure of the carbon atom. As the majority of the nuclei of the nitrogen atoms have seven protons and seven neutrons, this majority has flat nucleus shown in Fig. 27, a. The diagram of the nitrogen atom, which has such nucleus, is shown in Fig. 60.

 

 

 

Fig. 60. Diagram of the nitrogen atom: N is the atomic nucleus; e are the atomic electrons

 

 

 

 

10.10. Structure of the Oxygen Atom and Molecule

 

The oxygen atom is the eighth element of the periodic law of chemical elements arranged in its sixth group (Fig. 61). The structure of its nucleus is shown in Fig. 28. Symmetry of the nucleus should be transferred to the atom. The most probable diagram of the oxygen atom is given in Fig. 61. It has eight electrons; the ones, which are situated on the axis of symmetry, are the most active ones (1 and 2). Six other electrons arranged in the plane, which is perpendicular to the axis line (the line of symmetry) remove the electrons 1 and 2 from the nucleus by its total electrical field at a long distance forming the conditions for their large activity during the interaction with the electrons of the neighboring atoms.

The structure of the oxygen molecule is shown in Fig. 62. It is formed by means of connection of the unlike magnetic poles of the axis electrons of two oxygen atoms.

As it is clear, the oxygen molecule has fourteen free electrons, which are ready to be connected. It is likely that the axis electrons 1 and 2 are the ones, which are the most remote from the structure of the whole molecule, they are the most active ones, i.e. they are capable to be connected with the electrons of other atoms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


a)

 

b)

Fig. 61. Diagram of the nucleus (a) and oxygen atom (b)

 

 

 

Fig. 62. Diagram of the oxygen molecule model

 

 

The electrons of the flat carbon atoms have large binding energies with the nuclei, and they are less active. When they become excited, their activity is considerably increased, and they start being connected with the electrons of the atoms of other chemical elements.

 

 




       
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The Foundations of Physchemistry of Microworld

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