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12.5. Results of Fine Plasma Experiments

 

If water molecules are in ac filed and in high temperature thermal field at the same time during active turbulent flow, the process of separation of the protons and the hydrogen atoms from water molecules becomes chaotic. In this case, sundry variants of this process are possible. The separation of hydrogen atoms from water molecules is the most probable variant (Fig. 92, a, b).

 

 

 

 

Fig. 92. Diagram of hydrogen molecule fusion during water electrolysis: a), b) - water molecules; c),

d) - hydrogen atoms; e) - orthohydrogen molecule

 

 

As it is clear, 4.53 eV of energy is released during fusion of one hydrogen molecule (Fig. 92). In this case, the following reaction takes place at the cathode

 

. (299)

 

During plasma water electrolysis, the oxygen formation process in the anode area is less intensive than during low-voltage electrolysis, because its greater part is released in the cathode area together with hydrogen. If the bonds of the oxygen atom with the hydrogen atoms are destroyed in the water molecule only in a thermal way, no additional thermal energy is generated (as we have shown earlier). That is why the thermal energy efficiency index of such process will be as follows (Table 41) [109].

 

(300)

Table 41

 

Indices

1

2

3

Mean

1 mass of the solution, which has passed through the reactor m, gr.

1100

1070

1060

1077

2 temperature of solution at the input of the reactor t1, degrees

17

17

17

17

3 temperature of the solution at the output of the reactor t2, degrees

22

22

22

22

4 temperature difference of the solution Dt= t2 - t1, degrees

5

5

5

5

5 durability of the experiment Dt, s

300

300

300

300

6 number of rotations of the disc of the counter during the experiment n, rotations

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

7 electric power consumption according to the reading of the counter, =3600/600 kJ

Note: 600 rotations of the counter correspond to 1 kWh of electric power

 

 

14.4

 

 

14.4

 

 

14.54

 

 

14.4

8 reading of voltmeter V, V

140

140

140

140

9 reading of ammeter I, A

0.34

0.34

0.34

0.34

10 electric power consumption according to indices of voltmeter and ammeters, E2=IVDt, kJ

14.28

14.28

14.28

14.28

11 power spent for heating of the solution, E3=CmDt, kJ

23.45

22.42

22.21

22.69

12 reactor efficacy efficiency index according to the reading of the counter K= E3/ E

1.60

1.56

1.54

1.57

13 reactor efficiency index according to the reading of voltmeter and ammeter K2= E3/ E2

1.64

1.57

1.56

1.59

 

 

Let us consider one more variant of hydrogen molecule formation from a destroyed water molecule. It is clear from Fig. 91 a, b, c that in order to separate the proton of the hydrogen atom from water molecule, it is necessary to spend 1.48 eV of energy. Later on well show that during further fusion of two hydrogen atoms (0.86x2)=1.72 eV of energy will be released. Then during hydrogen molecule fusion 4.53 eV of energy will be released. During the fusion process of two hydrogen atoms and a hydrogen molecule, total quantity of energy will be 1.72+4.53=6.25 eV. The following reaction will take place at the cathode at that time [109]:

 

(301)

where H+ is the proton.

In this case, the index of heat energy efficacy will be equal to (Fig. 93), (Table 42) [109]

 

K= 6.25/2.96=2.11. (302)

 

A modified plasma-electrolytic reactor (Fig. 88) adjusted to non-plasma operation mode has been used for the experiments (Fig. 93, Tabl. 42). The experiments method is simple: electrolytic solution passes through an electrolytic cell (reactor). Released energy has been determined according to difference of temperature at the input and at the output of the reactor and expended energy has been determined with the help of a domestic electricity meter as well as voltmeter and ammeter of the highest accuracy class. Energy losses have not been taken into consideration, but one has tried to make temperature difference a small one in order to reduce them.

Let us give the second variant of the calculation of the experimental result (Table 42) using not the theoretical results of energy consumption for hydrogen production, but the experimental ones. One cubic metre of hydrogen contains 1000/22.4=44.64 moles of molecular hydrogen or 89.28 moles of monatomic hydrogen. During fusion of one atom of hydrogen 0.86 eV of energy is released; during fusion of 89.28 moles of hydrogen atoms the following quantity will be released

 

(303)

 

Further fusion of one cubic metre of hydrogen will add

. (304)

 

The results of experimental check of the given theoretical calculation are given in Table 42.

 

 

 

 

Table 42

Indices

1

2

3

Mean

1 mass of the solution, which has passed through the reactor m, degrees

1200

1230

1160

1197

2 temperature of solution at the input of the reactor t1, degrees

20

20

20

20

3 temperature of the solution at the output of the reactor t2, degrees

31.0

30.5

31.0

30.8

4 temperature difference of the solution Dt= t2 - t1, degrees

11.0

10.5

11.0

10.8

5 durability of the exper. Dt, s

300

300

300

300

6 number of rotations of the disc of the counter during the experiment n, rotations

4.44

4.44

4.44

4.44

7 electric power consumption according to the reading of the counter E1= nЧ3600/600 kJ

Note: 600 rotations of the counter correspond to 1 kWh of electric power

 

 

26.64

 

 

26.64

 

 

26.64

 

 

26.64

8 reading of voltmeter V, V

40

40

40

40

9 reading of ammeter I, A

1.80

1.80

1.80

1.80

10 electric power consumption according to indices of voltmeter and ammeters, E2=IЧVЧDt, kJ

21.60

21.60

21.60

21.60

11 power spent for heating of the solution, E3=CЧmЧDt, kJ

55.31

54.11

53.46

54.29

12 reactor efficacy efficiency index according to the reading of the counter K1= E3/ E2

2.08

2.03

2.01

2.04

13 reactor efficiency index according to the reading of voltmeter and ammeter K2= E3/ E2

2.56

2.50

2.47

2.51

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 93. Diagram of fusion of an atom and a molecule of hydrogen in the process of water electrolysis: a), b) - water molecules; c), d) - hydrogen atoms; e) orthohydrogen molecule

 

If we add together the energies of fusion of the atoms and the molecules of hydrogen, well get (7322.3+19463.0)=26785.3 kJ. In order to produce one cubic meter of hydrogen according to the existing technology, it is necessary to spend (4.0x3600)=14400 kJ. Index K of heat energy efficacy of such process of electrolysis will be (Table 42) [109]

 

К = (26785.3/14400)= 1.86. (305)

 

If we add energy content of hydrogen being produced (90x142)=12780 kJ, index of total energy efficacy will be [109]

 

= (39565.3/14400)=2.75. (306)

 

During the analysis of plasma electrolytic process, one should take into consideration the fact that in some operation modes water in the cathode area is decomposed not only into hydrogen and hydroxyl , but into hydrogen and oxygen. In this case,  ion is decomposed. We have shown that electrodynamic binding energy of the hydrogen atom with the oxygen atom in water molecule is equal to 0.74 eV, and thermal binding energy is 1.48 eV.

If in the cathode zone only the thermal process of water molecule decomposition into hydrogen and oxygen took place, the energy expenses for this process during fusion of one cubic meter of hydrogen would be

 

(307)


If the water molecules were decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen in the cathode area only mechanically, the energy expenses would be half, i.e. 6364 kJ.

Here, the problem is in reduction of intensity of the process of repeated bonding of hydrogen and oxygen in the plasma area. If this problem is not solved, energy efficacy of this process is increased, because during water molecules fusion the energy volume will be twice as much than spent for their mechanical destruction.

In reality, the protons and the atoms of hydrogen are be separated from water molecule simultaneously with the process of destruction of water molecule into hydrogen and hydroxyl OH- and into hydrogen and oxygen; thats why thermal energy efficacy index will vary within the range of 1.102.00 (Table 41, 42).

 

 

 

12.6. Plasma-electrolytic Reactor as Gas Generator

 

The new theory of water electrolysis predicts the possibility of significant reduction of power consumption for production of hydrogen from water.

But it is possible to do it if the above-mentioned conditions are observed. For example, let us pay attention to the orthohydrogen structure, which diagram is given in Fig. 53, b. This structure is formed when the hydrogen atoms of two water molecules approach each other. In this case, each of two water molecules gives one proton and one electron to the hydrogen molecule, and the hydrogen molecule is formed without the electrons emitted by the cathode, i.e. without direct consumption of electric energy for this process. In this case, electric energy is spent only for a separation of the hydrogen molecule being formed. Two water molecules connected in such a way correspond to the simplest cluster [109].

High temperature of plasma forms the conditions when a set of various processes takes place at the cathode. First of all, water is boiled and evaporated. At the same tome, one part of water molecules is disintegrated with a release of the atomic hydrogen, another part of the molecules forms the orthohydrogen molecules. A part of water molecules is disintegrated completely and is released at the cathode together with hydrogen and oxygen. A part of hydrogen is combined with oxygen again generating micro explosions (noise) and forming water.

But one should bear in mind that if plasma disintegrates water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen and if these gases contact plasma, hydrogen is combined with oxygen, and water is formed. Noise generated by plasma is hydrogen micro explosions. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned fact the larger the volume of hydrogen burnt in plasma, the smaller its volume in the gas-vapour mixture. It means that such reactor operation modes are required when quantity of burnt hydrogen is minimal one.

During plasma electrolysis of water, water vapor, hydrogen and oxygen are released simultaneously. If vapor is condensed, gas mixture is released (Fig. 94).

 

 

 

 

Fig. 94. Diagram of the plasma electrolytic generator of hydrogen: 1 - lid of the reactor; 3 - body of the reactor; 6 - the cathode; 9 - the anode; 11 - solution doser; 16 - cooler; 20 - pipe for gas release; 23 anemometer

 

 

In order to measure gas flow rate, both a conventional anemometer and an electronic one have been used. Diameter of the electronic anemometer was equal to internal diameter of the gas make tube (23, Fig. 94). Its readings were registered and processed by the computer. The experiment was performed dozen time, and each time its readings were reproduced with small deviations [109]. But we had no hydrogen analyzer, thats why the results being obtained cannot be considered as final ones. We admonished it in all editions of the book Water is a New Source of Energy with such a phrase: We abstain from lending an official status to these results with the hope to get necessary financing and to repeat them with a complete set of the necessary devices [109, page 176].

In the middle of the year of 2002 we received small financing, which allowed us to make a new reactor and to buy some measuring instruments, in particular the scales with the measurement limit up to 600 g and accuracy of 0.02 g. Careful preparation allowed us to increase duration of continuous operation of the reactor and to register solution consumption for gas production.

The main difficulty of operation with the hydrogen is in the fact that its mixture with air (4-74)% or oxygen (4-94)% is combustible, and the fact was emphasized more than once during the experiments making the researches be very careful. The second difficulty during hydrogen quantity measurements generated by the plasma electrolytic reactor is in the fact that its molecule has the smallest dimensions, thats why it penetrates easily to the places where the molecules of other substances do not penetrate. Molecular hydrogen diffuses easily even into metals [39]. For example, one volume of palladium absorbs up to 800 volumes of hydrogen.

Gas flow speed was measured with the help of various anemometers, its readings being registered with the help of the computer. Numerous measurements and numerous analysis of gas flow speed measurement accuracy with the help of the anemometers showed that error of a conventional anemometer can be 100%. Thats why in order to increase safety of the experiment, registered speed of gas flow was reduced 2fold. Taking it into consideration, energy consumption per cubic meter of gas mixture is given in Table 43. The given data were obtained by us together with A.I. Tlishev, D.V. Korneev and D.A. Bebko. Durability of one repetition of the experiment is 300 s.

 

 

 

Table 43. Influence of voltage on volume of gases being generated

 

U, volts

180

200

220

240

260

280

W, litre

23.2

81.0

108.0

127.5

127.5

121.5

1.04

0.22

0.14

0.14

0.15

0.13

 

Durable continuous operation (10 hours) of the reactor with various solutions gave the following results (Table 44).

 

 

 

 

Table 44. Experimental results

 

Indices

Water

consumption, kg

Volume of gases,

Energy expenses,

KOH

0.035

8.00

0.52

NaOH

0.072

11.20

0.30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 95. Diagram of measurement of flow rate of the gas and its volume: 1 - tap for gas flow movement

direction switching, 2 anemometer, 3 graduated tank, 4 water tank

 

 

It is known that it is possible to produce 1220 litres of hydrogen and 622 litres of oxygen from one litre of water. Quantity of the gases generated by the plasma electrolytic process is much greater than it is possible to get from consumed water (Table 44). It was a strong reason for a search of the measurement error. For this purpose, the diagram of measurement of flow rate of the gases and their quantity was used (Fig. 95).

The results of the measurements were as follows. The anemometer showed that 200 litres of gas mixture penetrated through it during 10 minutes. Nearly one litre of gases was in the graduated tank during this period.

Thus, the measurement of gas flow with the help of the anemometers distorted the result 200fold. It should be mentioned that the reactor operated in the production mode of hydrogen and oxygen in the cathode zone. As a result, their mixture burst. The pulses of these explosions increased the readings of the anemometer.

It has become necessary to return to the reactor operation modes when few oxygen is released in the cathode zone or to the operation with the plasma in the centre of electric field in solution between cathode and anode. The results of these experiments will be published in the third edition of this book. Now we have the results of low-current

Electrolysis of the water (Table 45).

 

 

 

PROTOCOL

of tests of the first model of low-current Electrolyzers

 

It is known that it is possible to produce 1.22 l of + 0.622 = 1.843 () from 1 ml of .

 

 

Table 45. Experimental results

 

Indices

1

2

3

Average

1-duration of experiment, hour

1

1

1

1

2-voltage, V

70

70

70

70

3-current, A

0.038

0.080

0.098

0.072

4 power, W

2.7

5.60

6.44

4.91

5-volume of consumed solution, ml

1.67

3.98

4.32

3.32

6-volume of the gas mixture being produced, l

3.08

7.16

7.95

5.95

7-volume of hydrogen being produced, l

2.04

4.75

5.27

4.02

8-energy consumption per l of hydrogen, Wh/l

 

1.32

 

1.18

 

1.22

 

1.24

9-energy consumption per m3 of hydrogen, kWh/m3

1.32

1.18

1.22

1.24

9-existing energy consumption for production of 1 m3 of hydrogen from water, kWh/m3

 

4.00

 

4.00

 

4.00

 

4.00

 

We used the weigh method too and had received the same results. Thus the low-current electrolysis allow us to get the inexpensive hydrogen from water too.

 




       
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