PROSPECTS OF QUANTUM
The Kuban State Agrarian University, Department of Theoretical Mechanics
13, Kalinin Street, 350044 Krasnodar, Russia
Abstract: the questions are well known that belong to micro world behavior, for which the modern quantum theory gives the possibility to get the answers. It allows us to define the questions, which remain unanswered by the modern quantum theory.
A quantum theory, which will make it possible to get the answers to the questions given below, can be considered as a new one. Here are the questions of the micro world, for which a new quantum theory should give the answers:
1. Why have Maxwell’s equations being obtained in 1865 failed to disclose the electromagnetic structure of the photon?
2. Why do Maxwell’s equations, despite the fixed fact that the photons are emitted by the electrons during their energy transitions, affirm the formation (for example, by a radio transmitter aerial) of an electromagnetic field, which structure remains undetermined?
3. Why have they failed to establish validity of Einstein’s theories of relativity as yet? Why have these theories been criticized since the day of their emergence and are criticized as yet?
4. Why has science failed to work out a criterion for the estimation of a connection of any theory with reality, the criterion, which would not depend on a subjective opinion of any scientist?
5. Who among the scientists was the first to make the first fundamental generalization in exact sciences, on which these sciences are based yet and will be based perennially?
6. Who among the scientists made the second fundamental generalization in exact sciences, which resulted in technical revolution?
7. Why has the development of physical and chemical theories been slowed down at the end of the 20th century that can describe diversity of the micro world opened by the experimenters?
8. Is the third fundamental generalization necessary in exact sciences? What is the content of this generalization?
9. Why does science get no coordinated definition of the notions of an Axiom and a Postulate as yet?
10. What is the difference between an axiomatic affirmation and a postulated affirmation?
11. Why do the scientists fail to establish the main scientific notions and to rank them depending on the level of significance for scientific investigations as yet?
12. What axioms should originate from the main scientific notions? What role do they play in scientific investigations?
13. Why is an international agreement between the scientists unavailable concerning the necessity to use the axioms and the postulates in order to determine a connection of the existing and new physical and chemical theories with reality as yet?
14. Does a value of an axiom depend on its acceptance by the scientific community?
15. What criteria determine a value of a postulate?
16. Why do the scientists fail to notice the space-matter-time unity axiom and to understand its value in the estimation of reliability of any theory?
17. Why is the space-matter-time unity axiom not used for the evaluation of human intellectual potential spent in vain for the study of many unavailing physical theories as yet?
18. Why is the process of elaboration of the unavailing physical theories not stopped as yet?
19. Why do the scientists fail to get an independent criterion in order to estimate of the existing and new physical and chemical theories?
20. What role will the space-matter-time unity axiom play in development of exact sciences?
21. What is the electromagnetic structure of the photon, a carrier of energy and information?
22. What are the dimensions of the space area where the photon is localized?
23. In what way are the dimensions of the space area where the photon is localized connected with the wavelength, frequency and energy of the photons of the whole scale of electromagnetic emission?
24. What forces localize the photon in space?
25. In what way are the structure and the geometrical dimensions of the photon changed with the alteration of the wavelength and electromagnetic emission frequency?
26. It is known that the photons are emitted by the atomic electrons. What is emitted when a radio wave or a TV signal is formed?
27. Do the single photons form the whole scale of electromagnetic emission or are there the areas of the scale of electromagnetic emissions, which are formed by a set of the photons?
28. Where is the boundary on the scale of electromagnetic emissions between the single photons and a set of the photons?
29. Why does a radio wave with the length measured in kilometers transmit all points of the information, which it carries, to a receiver aerial, which dimensions have several centimetres?
30. What is the nature of a relic range of electromagnetic emissions? Why is it formed by the photons of a remote infrared spectrum?
31. Why are the photons polarized?
32. Why are the photons indivisible?
33. Why do the photons move rectilinearly?
34. Why do the photons possess no charge?
35. Why is velocity of all photons of the scale of electromagnetic emissions the same?
36. Along what wave path does the photon mass centre move?
37. In what way is the amplitude of oscillation of the photon mass centre connected with its wavelength?
38. In what way is Heisenberg inequality connected with the structure of the photon and its geometric parameters?
39. Heisenberg inequality limits accuracy of geometrical and kinematical experimental information. Does this inequality exert influence on accuracy of theoretical information?
40. Is it possible to deduce analytically all earlier postulated mathematical models, which describe behavior of the photons?
41. Are there any hidden parameters, which can help to deduce analytically all mathematical models, which describe behavior of the photons?
42. Are we entitled to use the mathematical model of calculation of Doppler effect, which is derived from Lorentz transforms, for the calculation of the infrared bias of the spectra?
43. Is there a classical mathematical model for Doppler effect calculation, which gives more exact results than the relativistic model?
44. Is there an unambiguous answer: is the Universe expanded or not?
45. What experiment should be made in order to get an unambiguous answer concerning the state of the Universe. Is it expanded or not?
46. Is there any classical derivation of the mathematical model of the law of emission of the perfect blackbody?
47. What physical denotation have two main efficients in Planck formula for the calculation of emission of the perfect blackbody?
48. What physical denotation has a numeric coefficient in Planck formula for the calculation of emission of the perfect blackbody?
49. Has a reflecting photon a transverse pulse component?
50. Why do the photons demonstrate both corpuscular and wave properties?
51. Why do the photons fail to exist in the state of rest?
52. Why is photon frequency reduced with an increase of their wavelength?
53. Why is photon mass increased with a reduction of their wavelength?
54. Why is photon penetrability increased with a reduction of their wavelength and a simultaneous increase of frequency of their oscillations?
55. Why is angle of incidence of the photon equal to angle of its reflection?
56. Why does the photon flow form transmission patterns and interference ones?
57. Why is an anomalous interference pattern formed behind two slots, the distance between which is commensurable with the photon wavelength?
58. Why is photon energy determined by two mathematical dependencies: product of photon mass by light velocity square and product of Planck constant by photon frequency?
59. What law governs electromagnetic emission propagation velocity consistency of all ranges of the scale of this emission?
60. Is there any theoretical and experimental proof of lack of orbital motion of the electron in the atom?
61. According to what law are binding energies of all electrons with the atomic nuclei changed?
62. How are these energies changed when the molecules are formed?
63. In what ways is Compton wavelength of the electron connected with its radius?
64. Why does Planck constant have dimensionality of angular momentum?
65. What decree of nature governs Planck constant consistency?
66. Is Planck constant a vector value?
67. Is energy of a single photon a vector value?
68. Is energy of the electron a vector value?
69. Does the procedure of addition and subtraction of energies of the photon and the electron obey vector algebra rules?
70. In what natural phenomena and experiments is it possible to find vector addition of energies of single photons and electrons?
71. According to what mathematical models are the spectra of bound levels of the electrons in the atoms and ions calculated?
72. Is there any connection between the mathematical model (1) of formation of the spectra of the atoms and ions and Einstein’s mathematical model describing a photoeffect phenomenon?
73. What actual physical sense has a work function in the mathematical model of photo effect suggested by Einstein?
74. Does the mathematical model of formation of the spectra of the atoms and ions (1) give the possibility to determine a source of photoelectrons in the photo effect phenomenon? Do the atoms or the molecules emit the photoelectrons in the photo effect phenomenon?
75. Why was it impossible for a long time to find a genuine physical sense of the mathematical model suggested by A. Einstein for the photo effect explanation?
76. What role for future chemistry will the law of formation of the spectra of the atoms and ions play, which results in the lack of orbital motion of the electron in the atom?
77. Will the lack of orbital motion of the electron in the atom expedite the description of the processes of fusion and dissociation of the molecules and the clusters?
78. Will the lack of orbital motion of the electron in the atom expedite the manuals in chemistry? Will it increase attraction of chemistry as a science for the youths?
79. What mistake was made by Michelson and Morley in the interpretation of their famous experiment?
80. Why do the results of Michelson-Morley experiment conflict with the results of Sagniac experiment?
81. What mistake was made by Fizeau during interpretation of the results of his famous experiment?
82. Does the neutrino exist in nature? Is it possible to prove it experimentally?
83. What is the essence of the hypothesis, which substitutes the neutrino and explains all cases of unbalance of masses and energies registered in the micro world experimentally?
84. What is an electromagnetic structure of the electron?
85. Why is kinetic energy of the electron equal to its potential energy?
86. What electromagnetic phenomenon in the structure of the electron forms its electrical charge and potential energy?
87. What is magnetic field strength of the electron in close vicinity with its geometric centre?
88. Why can the electrons (in contradistinction to the photons) exist in the state of rest?
89. What laws govern stability of electromagnetic structure of the electron?
90. Is mass of the electron changed during emission and absorption of the photons by them?
91. Can the electron exist in free state without restoration of its mass after the photon has been emitted?
92. In what way does the electron emits and absorbs the photon?
93. Where does the electron take energy for restoration of stability of its free state after the photon has been emitted?
94. Why is a spin of the electron equal to Planck constant, not to its half as it has been considered as yet?
95. How is vector of magnetic moment of the electron directed in relation to the direction of its spin?
96. Why do vectors of angular momentum and magnetic moment of the electron have the same, not opposite direction as it has been supposed as yet?
97. Do the clusters of the electrons exist? Is there any proof of this fact?
98. In what way is the wavelength of the electron connected with the radius of its rotation?
99. Why is the wavelength of the infrared photon emitted by the electron greater than the wavelength of the electron by three orders of magnitude?
100. Why is Compton effect manifested only when X-ray photons interact with the electrons in the atoms?
101. Does the photon emitted by the electron move with acceleration or has it velocity of light at once?
102. In what way does the electron absorbs and emits the photon during energy transitions in the atoms, the ions and the molecules?
103. Why does an explosion take place when hydrogen combines with oxygen?
104. An explosion is a simultaneous pass of large quantity of the atomic electrons to lower energy levels and emission of the photons at this moment. It appears from this that the dimensions of the emitted photons should be considerably larger than the dimensions of the electrons. To what extent larger and why?
105. If the electrons move along the orbits round the atomic nuclei, how do they combine the atoms into molecules? What forces provide this combination?
106. Why the electron being a particle forms transmission patterns and interference ones?
107. How does topology of electromagnetic surface of the electron exert influence on formation of transmission patterns and interference ones?
108. How does the electron of the hydrogen atom, which has no orbital motion in the atom, interact with the proton?
109. What forces bring the electron close to the proton in the atom? What forces limit this approximation?
110. To what degree is the size of the hydrogen atom larger than the size of the proton and the electron?
111. Why do the hydrogen atoms exist in a free state only in case when the temperature exceeds 4000°C?
112. In what way do two hydrogen atoms form the hydrogen molecule? What forces bring these atoms close to each other? What forces limit their approximation?
113. Why do the molecules of parahydrogen and orthohydrogen exist?
114. What has the largest magnetic moment in the atom and the molecule of hydrogen: the proton or the electron?
115. How are vectors of spin and magnetic moment of the protons and the electrons directed in the atoms and the molecule of hydrogen?
116. How many energy levels can the electron have in the hydrogen atom? What factor limits upper energy level?
117. What is the essence of the limitation of Pauli principle in the description of energy levels of the electrons in the atoms and the ions?
118. Why is the energy spent for electrodynamic or mechanical bond opening in the molecules less than the energy of thermal opening of these bonds?
119. Why is additional thermal energy generated in the ventilation systems and the hydraulic systems of water cavitation?
120. How is the process of additional thermal energy generation connected with the law of conservation of energy?
121. On what energy levels are the electrons of the hydrogen atoms situated in water molecules?
122. By what value is binding energy between the atoms of hydrogen and oxygen in water molecules changed when water it heated by one degree?
123. Why does the registration of hydrogen molecule fusion energy during low-voltage water electrolysis show the presence of additional thermal energy, but it does not exist in actual experiments and turnarounds of hydrogen production?
124. The existing theory of low-voltage water electrolysis predicts a separation of the hydrogen atoms from water molecules and further fusion of the hydrogen molecules. In this case, the hydrogen atoms pass a free state stage when atomic hydrogen plasma is formed without fail, but in actual low-voltage water electrolysis processes no plasma is formed. Why?
125. Why is additional thermal energy generated during plasma water electrolysis only in case of a turbulence flow of the solution in the plasma zone?
126. Why are gases released in a low current electrolytic cell during many hours after the external power supply has been turned off?
127. Why does a positive charge take place on the upper electrode and a negative charge on the lower one in an empty low current electrolytic cell?
128. Why does larger charge take place automatically on the electrodes of the low current electrolytic cell when it is loaded with electrolyte than on the electrodes of am empty cell?
129. Why does the potential fail to be reduced to zero at the electrodes of the low current cell?
130. Why cannot the protons of the hydrogen atoms exist in a free state in the electrolytic solution?
131. What ion forms acid properties of water if the protons of the hydrogen atoms in water molecule cannot exist in the free state?
132. Is it possible to reduce energy expenses for hydrogen production of water 10fold or more?
133. Why does Schwarzschield’s formula for the black hole radius calculation fail to take into account the wavelength of the photons?
134. By how many orders of magnitude will a radius of the black hole be reduced, which is formed from a star with the parameters of the Sun, if we take into consideration the wavelength of electromagnetic emission? By how many orders of magnitude will density of substance of such hole be increased?
135. What mistakes are made by the astronomers in their astrophysical observations when they use erroneous Schwarzschield’s formula for the black hole radius calculation?
136. Is it a large mistake, which has been made in the determination of the value of the photon motion path deviation due the gravitational field of the Sun by Eddington’s expedition trying to prove validity of Einstein’s theories of relativity?
137. Why is a share of surplus neutrons increased with the increase of the number of the protons and the neutrons in the atomic nuclei?
138. What is magnetic field strength equal to in the vicinity of the geometrical centre of the proton?
139. Due to what law is magnetic field strength of the proton changed along the axis of its rotation?
140. How many magnetic poles has magnetic field of the electron?
141. How many magnetic poles has magnetic field of the proton?
142. How many magnetic poles has magnetic field of the neutron?
143. What is magnetic field strength equal to in the contact zone of the proton with the neutron?
144. What is the nature of nuclear forces? Why is their value reduced when the distance from the nuclear centre is increased?
145. Why do 100% of beryllium nuclei possess 5 neutrons and four protons?
146. Why is carbon represented in the nature by two drastically different properties: fragile graphite and superstrong diamond?
147. Why are the atomic nuclei of graphite flat and the atomic nuclei of diamond absolutely symmetrical in space?
148. Why do the combustible substances have the following main components: oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon?
149. Why can transmutation of the atomic nuclei take place at the temperature below 10000°C (it was considered impossible earlier)?
150. Can the plasma electrolytic process become the main one in the controllable transmutation of the atomic nuclei of the atoms of chemical elements?
151. Can future physics of the micro world be separated from chemistry of the micro world?
152. Will the answers to the given questions simplify the future manuals of Physchemistry of the micro world?
I have given a small part of the questions, which are faced by us as a result of many new experiments. In fact, there are many of them. Now it is known that quantum mechanics of the 20th century fails to get the answers to any given question. But there exists the beginning of classical quantum mechanics, which gives the possibility to get the answers to the given questions, and they have already been published http://book.physchemistry.innoplaza.net .
Future Physchemistry of the micro world will be a model one. One can imagine how the animated cartoons will be made, which show creation of the electron and the proton, the hydrogen atom formation process and the energy transitions of the electron in the atom will be shown as well as the processes of emission and absorption of the photons. The process of creation and motion of the photon will be described in detail with the help of multimedia. This description will be accompanied with multimedia development of the formulas, which describe behavior of the photon and the electron as well as the processes of creation of the atoms and the molecules. Can you imagine how the study of the micro world will be simplified?
The departments of Physchemistry of the micro world will be set up. The specialists in Physchemistry of the micro world will appear.
I’d like to dwell on an acute necessity to separate the physical theories of the micro world into two categories: corpuscular theories and field ones. The first theories should describe behavior of the localized objects in space, all objects of the micro world being such ones. But in the micro world and the macro world there exist gravitational, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, which have no precise localization in space. For their description, the field theories are required, which will conflict with the space-matter-time unity axiom. It will mean that it is impossible to get exact information with the help of such theories. In some cases, incomplete information will be enough in order to evaluate exotic phenomena.
<< Kanarev´s Page