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**4. SPACE-MATTER-TIME UNITY AXIOM**

We’d like to
attract readers’ attention to the main reason of the theoretical physics crisis:
lack of understanding of fundamental significance of the space-matter-time
axiom. Its essence is in fact that separate existence of space, matter and time
is impossible. It is impossible to separate matter from space and it is
impossible to imagine their separate existence. It is impossible to separate
time from space or from matter. In the reality where we exist space, matter and
time are primary and inseparable elements of the universe. Axiomacity of this statement is obvious [18], [26],
[70].

The question is: haven’t mathematicians, physicists, chemists and other
investigators of reality taken into account axiomacity of space-matter-time
unity? **The answer will be definite. No, they haven’t**. Almost all modern
physical theories contradict this axiomacity [1], [6], [14], [19], [171].

Space-matter-time unity axiom points out to the fact that correlation
between matter, space and time should be reflected in all mathematical models
which describe the changeable reality. But this simple rule (as it seems from
the first sight) remained unnoticed neither by mathematicians, no physicists
[22], [171].

For example, Lorents transformations serve as a basis fir the special theory of relativity by A.
Einstein. These transformations are derived from the main mathematical
postulate on pseudo-Euclidean geometry by Minkovsky [152].

.
(1)

Let us pay attention to the fact that
the equation (1) has another form in the Euclidean geometry

. (2)

If we compare these two equations,
we’ll see that the Euclidean geometry *Cdt=OM* is straight-line diagonal
of the parallelepiped (Fig. 1), and in the equation (1) of Minkovsky’s geometry
this diagonal cannot be straight-line, because this equation does not
correspond to Pythagorean theorem. As value *ds* is available in
Minkovsky’s equation (1), it makes the parallelepiped’s diagonal curvilinear
OEM (Fig. 1), and this fact is undeniable.

Fig. 1 Diagram to
the analysis of Minkovsky’s geometry

Let us pay attention to the fact that the length of the *Cdt = OM*
diagonal is measured with the help of a photon, which moves the velocity *C*.

Straightness of the diagonal *Cdt = OM *on the equation (2)
corresponds to the possibility of the photon to move in space straightway.
Curvilinearity of the diagonal* Cdt = OM * in Minkovsky’s equation (1) disagrees with its feature. It means that
we have no right to put photon’s velosity C in the equation (1) postulated by
Minkovsky, which is a basis of his four-dimensional geometry.

From the equation (2), we can determine the position of the photon on
the diagonal *Cdt = OM *at any time. It corresponds to the axiom of
space-matter-time unity. At every point of the diagonal *Cdt= OM *, the
photon (matter), space and time exist as inseparable unity. Versa verse,
Minkovsky’s equation (1) does not allow to determine the position of the photon
on the track OEM at the present time violating space-matter-time unity. It
results in incorrectness of the mathematical model (1), which is a basis of
four-dimensional geometry of Minkovsky.

It is known that the fundamental postulates are worthy of note only when
their reliability has been checked with the help of the direct experiments not
once. The postulated mathematical model (1) of the pseudo-Euclidean geometry by
Minkovsky is being used in science nearly 100 years without the check of its reliability
with the help of a direct experiment. It results in incorrectness of many
physical theories based on Minkovsky’s geometry. This incorrectness is easily
checked with the help of the axiom of space-matter-time unity. Let us
demonstrate it using the analysis of Lorent’s transformations as an example.
These transformations are derived from the mathematical model (1) of the pseudo-Euclidean geometry by
Minkovsky [119], [152]. Let us furnish them in a classical type:

(3)

(4)

Fig. 2. Diagram to
analysis of Lorentz’s transformations

Let us pay attention to the fact
that there is a coordinate *x’* in the formula (3) which is registered in
the mobile reference system (Fig. 2), and in the second formula only time *t’*
is present which passes in the same reference system. Thus, in the mathematical
formulas (3) and (4) the change able value of space interval *x’* in the
mobile reference system is separated from time *t’* passing in this
reference system. As in reality it is impossible to separate space from time,
the above-mentioned equations cannot be analyzed separately. It is a set of
equations, and they should be analyzed together. Only this analysis will
correspond to space-matter-time axiom, and the results of only this analysis
will reflect reality. But this simple rule is still ignored by physics and
mathematicians. It is clear from equation (3) that when *V*® *C*
the space interval value *x’* is reduced. They make a conclusion that if
mobile system movement speed V is increased, the value of space interval *x’ *is
reduced. Then they analyze only one equation (4)[1].
As follows from this equation, when *V*® *C,* value *t’*
is reduced.

Let us correct erroneous
interpretation. As it is impossible to separate space from time in reality, let
us analyze equations (3) and (4)
together; for this purpose let us divide the first one by the second one; we
shall have the following result

(5)

The mathematical formula (5)
reflects the dependence of coordinate *x’ *from* t’. *It means that
formula (5) operates within the frames of space-matter-time axiom, i.e. within
the frames of reality.

It is seen from Fig.2 that *x* is coordinate of light signal
position in immovable reference system. It is equal to product of light movement
speed *C *by time *t*. If we substitute equation *x=Ct* in the
given formula (5), we shall get coordinate *x’=Ct’* which registers light
signal position in the mobile reference system. Where is this signal situated?
As we change coordinates* x* and *x’*, it is situated on coinciding
axes *OX* and *OX’* at time moments *t *and *t’*, i.e. in
point *K* (Fig. 2). Geometrical sense of Lorentz’s transformations is very
simple. Coordinate *x’* of point *K* in the mobile reference system
and coordinate *x* in immovable reference system are registered in them
(Fig. 2). It is a cross point of light sphere with axes *OX* and *OX’*. This is the essence of the Lorentz transformations. There is no other
information in these transformations, and they reflect no physical effects.

Later on, during the
analysis of Dopler effect we’ll show that Lorentz transformations have played a
role of a theoretical virus in theoretical physics of the 20th century.

This elementary analysis shows that
Louis de Broglie’s wave equation, Schroedinger equation, Dirac equations well
as all modern field physical theories contradict the space-matter-time unity
axiom [70]. It means that they describe physical world incompletely and cannot
give us more information that they give now. That’s why the attempts to solve
non-traditional problems with the help of these theories are unfruitful.
Detailed information concerning these facts can be obtained from the article [12], books [8], [18], [26], [70],
[109] and booklets [7], [13], [17].

This elementary
analysis of Lorentz transformations shows that they conflict with the main
axiom of natural science: the space-matter-time unity axiom. It appears from
this they distort reality, that’s why they are erroneous.

It is natural that erroneousness of Lorentz transformations causes
erroneousness of all theories based on the transformations. First of all, both
theories of relativity of A. Einstein are erroneous [161], [162].

Availability of criterion for the estimation of the connection of any theory
with reality allows us to estimate this connection of all theories, on which
modern quantum physics is based.

Let us begin with Louis de Broglie’s monochrome wave equation.

(6)

In this equation l is the wavelength, v is wave
frequency, x is the coordinate, and t is time. Let us take into consideration
that in reality the movement of any object in space is synchronized with the
course of time, i.e. coordinate x is always function of time t. In Louis de
Broglie’s equation x and t are independent variables. It cannot happen in
reality when coordinate x of the variable position of any object in space does
not depend of time t. It means that Louis de Broglie’s equation conflicts with
the main axiom of natural science: the space-matter-time unity axiom. That’s
why we exclude it from our investigations.

Schroedinger’s equation in three-dimensional space looks more
complicated [111]

(7)

The following function is the solution of this equation

,
(8)

In this function, coordinate x does not depend on time t. In this case,
the solution result (8) conflicts with the space-matter-time unity axiom and is
far from reality.

Nevertheless, Louis de Broglie’s equation and Schroedinger’s equation
are widely used in quantum physics now; sometimes they describe the results of
the experiments. As they are wave equations, it is natural that they can
describe wave processes or the processes similar to them. The cause of
independence of x from t in Louis de Broglie’s equation and in other equations
is explained by the fact that in wave
geometry the variable function Y of oscillations at one and the same
time can have the same value at various values of x. That’s why the results of
the solutions of these equations have stochastic character and do not give the
opportunity to find an exact value of any parameter. This result is caused by
the fact that these equations are at variance with the space-matter-time unity
axiom.

Sometimes the function (8) can be divided into two functions, each of
them depends only on x or only on t, and it becomes possible to describe any
process, which depends only on time t or on coordinate x. From function (8), it
is possible to find function y=y(x), which gives the opportunity to
calculate the range of hydrogen-type atoms.

(9)

It takes place due to the fact that the photon energy emitted by the
electron during its energy jumps in the atoms depends only on distance x
between the atomic nucleus and the electron in the moment of absorption or
emission of the photon. But this result is an accidental one, because the
classical equation has been found for the calculation of the spectra of not only
hydrogen-type atoms, but of multi-electron atoms as well. We’ll give the
deduction of this equation and show how it operates.

We are not going to give and analyse Dirac’s equation, because it has
the same drawback as Louis de Broglie’s equation and Schroedinger’s equation.
In this equation, coordinates x, y, z do not depend on time. That’s why it
operates outside the framework of the space-matter-time unity axiom as well and
does not give us the information, which could allow us to disclose electromagnetic
structure of any particle [80].

The main role of axioms
is to be a foundation of the new theories. The foundation of any future theory,
which will be built on the grounds of the above mentioned axioms, will have
everlasting strength.

We
must mention the contradiction of differential equations in partial derivatives
to the space-matter-time unity axiom. Usually, these equations include the time
parameter; the change of other parameters is considered to be independent from
time, and it conflicts with the space-matter-time unity axiom. Consequently,
differential equations in partial derivatives reflect reality incompletely and
can distort it sometimes. It has been found recently that there exists not one,
but many solutions of Cauchy problem for the wave equation in partial
derivatives [190].

As in the
analysis of behaviour of elementary particles we are interested in actual, not
stochastic character of this behaviour, we should try to find other equations,
which differ from de Broglie’s equation, Schroedinger’s equation and Dirac’s
equation.

Actually, quantum physics was born from the ratio, which describes
energy of the photon [24], [108].

, (10)

That’s why it would be better to pay more attention to the analysis of
this ratio in order to see if it conflicts with the classical physics laws
actually.

First of all, it is necessary to define what law governs constancy of Planck’s
constant h. It cannot be constant without a cause. Its constancy should be
governed by one of the fundamental laws of Nature. And we’ll see that it is so
indeed. The law of conservation of angular momentum, one of the fundamental
laws of classical physics, governs constancy of Planck’s constant. That’s why
the appearance of constant h in mathematical model of the black body radiation
law has proved that fact that this law is a law of classical physics, not vice
verse as it has taken place historically [102].

If we were lucky enough to disclose the structure of electromagnetic
radiation of the black body, a classical interpretation of this radiation would
take place, as a result. But it was not the case. The structure of the photon,
a quantum of energy postulated by Max Planck, proved to be very complicated.
That’s why we return to the analysis of experimental dependence of the black
body radiation law and try to disclose the structure of the photon first of
all. The law, which governs constancy of Planck’s constant and discloses
classical interpretation of the black body radiation law, originates from this
structure. Then we’ll give a classical deduction of mathematical model of the
black body radiation law and see how all components of this law get a clear
physical sense.

**The
Foundations of Physchemistry of Microworld**

**Copyright ****Ó****2003 Kanarev Ph.
M.**** **

Internet Version - http://book.physchemistry.innoplaza.net

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