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Download: Article "New Sources of Energy from the Point of View of Unitary Quantum Theory" by Sapogin, Ryabov and Graboshnikov (0.5 Mb).

are Seeking Publisher for this Book:

February 26, 2004


“Unitary Quantum Theory and New Energy Sources”

L.G. Sapogin

Y.A. Ryabov

    V.A. Boichenko



The proposed book will have 4 chapters and contain about 24 printer’s sheets. Let us make a brief review of the book by chapter:

The first chapter will deal with the general theoretical basics of the unitary quantum theory. In the standard quantum theory a microparticle is described with the help of a wave function with a probability interpretation, which does not follow from the strict mathematical formalism of the nonrelativistic quantum theory, but is simply postulated. A particle is represented as a dot being a source of a field, but it is not reduced to the field itself, and nothing can be said about its “structure” except these vague words. There is a school in physics (going back to Clifford, Einstein and Louis de Broglie), where a particle is represented as a clot (wave packet) of a certain unified field. According to Gemmer’s classification, this is a unitary program. The purpose of the program can be most clearly expressed using Einstein’s own words: “We could regard substance as such areas of space where a field is immense. From this point of view, a thrown stone is an area of immense field intensity moving at the stone’s speed. In such new physics there would be no place for substance and field, since field would be the only reality,… and the laws of movement would automatically ensue from the laws of field”.

The trouble of all the previous attempts (Schrodinger, Louis de Broglie, etc.) was that they tried to construct a particle from the de Broglie waves, whose dispersion is such that any wave packet becomes blurred and spreads over the whole space, whereas introduction of nonlinearity would greatly complicate the task, but would not lead to the problem solution.

The Unitary Quantum Theory (UQT) represents a particle as a certain wave packet of partial waves with linear dispersion. Dispersion can be chosen in such a way that the wave packet would be periodically spread and assembled in movement, and the envelope of the process would coincide with the wave function. On the basis of this idea a relativistic-invariant model of such a unitary quantum field theory was built. A particle in it is described with the help of a 32-component wave packet. The equation contains 32x32 matrixes dependent on 4-speed. During a limit transition it leads strictly (!) to the relativistic Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the classic mechanics, and in case of creep speeds (when all the 4-speed components are moving towards zero), 8 similar Dirac equations follow from the UQT equation system.

Further, mass is naturally replaced in the equations with the integral of the field bilinear combination along the whole object, producing a system of 32 nonlinear integral-differential equations, which in the scalar case allowed the authors to calculate to within 0.3% the extensible electric charge and the fine structure constant. Quantification of the electric charge emerging as a balance between dispersion and nonlinearity became clear from the point of view of physics. Usually dispersion and nonlinearity bring about destruction of the wave packet, but for certain types of wave packet forms and amplitudes mutual compensation of these processes is possible, and the packet periodically appears and disappears in movement at the de Broglie wavelength, but it preserves its form.

A basic theory of microparticle to macrodevice interaction has been laid. The probability interpretation of the wave function is now not postulated, like it was earlier, but follows strictly from the mathematical formalism of the theory.

This approach makes the unitary quantum theory absolutely vivid. For example, the tunnel effect completely loses its mysteriousness in the following way: when a particle approaches a potential barrier in such a phase when the amplitude of the wave packet is small, all the equations become linear, and the particle does not even “notice” the barrier. During another phase, when the packet amplitude is big, nonlinear interaction begins, and it can be reflected. The particle birth and disintegration mechanisms become completely natural as splitting up of wave packets. This approach regards all interactions and processes as a result of the only process of diffraction and interference of packets on one another because of nonlinearity.


The second chapter deals with the approximate equation of an isolated particle with an oscillating charge. At first such an equation was made on the basis of the UQT heuristic considerations, but later it was received directly from the Schrodinger equation for very low energies. It describes in certain problems the behaviour of microparticles as classic particles whose charge oscillates and is in complicated dependence on the time, speed and coordinate. In such an approach the tunnel effects also depends on the wave function phase, which was earlier a superfluous parametre in the standard quantum theory, since only the wave function module square had a physical sense, and the phase did not effect it. With the new approach the situation is different. If a particle approaches a high potential barrier in a phase when its charge is very small, the repellent force is also small, and it can overcome the barrier by climbing it, while in another phase it will reverberate. Such an equation was applied to standard quantum-mechanical problems: particle dispersion, tunnel effect, harmonious oscillator, Kepler problem for individual particles, etc. Some analytic solutions and computational modeling methods were also studied, since the equation with the oscillating charge had put a number of problems in the math computational methods.

But what is the most unexpected and intriguing is the absence of energy and impulse conservation laws for an isolated particle, when its behaviour is described with the help of an equation with the oscillating charge, since it has no translation invariance. To be more exact, such invariance exists only for numbers divisible by p. This means that for some initial values the conservation laws exist, and for other they do not.

A look at the origin of fundamental conservation laws for self-contained mechanic systems shows that they follow from the Newton equations (references to thermodynamics have no grounds whatsoever, because they are postulated in it), but the latter themselves follow from the quantum-mechanic equations, which are certainly of a more fundamental character.

The standard quantum theory for isolated processes can predict only the probability of this or that event, and so there are no conservation laws for isolated events. They appear only in case of transition to classical mechanics, when big numbers of particles are summed up. The conservation laws appear in the macrocosm in a similar way in the UQT. But now the existence of a phase (controllable) opens up a number of wonderful spheres in science and technology (especially energy).


Chapter 3 deals with the application of the equation with the oscillating charge for interpreting rich experimental material, which does not at all fit in the framework of the standard quantum-mechanic science. Thus, the UQT, and later the equation with the oscillating charge, made it possible to predict in 1983 the phenomenon of cold nuclear fusion, which was discovered only in 1989.

This is a totally unexpected opportunity for making nuclear reactions with very small energy values. A barrier to the most probable D-D reaction under the normal very low energy conditions is made by a very high Coulomb barrier. In the UQT, deuteron (as calculations show) can overcome it with a definite value of the initial phase.

Numerous facts, absolutely impossible in modern science, will be analyzed on the basis of a solution to the harmonious oscillator problem, and others:

anomalous heat production in cold nuclear fusion reactions (when nuclear reaction products are millions of times less numerous than is required to explain the heat effects);

cold nucleus transmutation;

production of superfluous thermal energy in numerous cavity installations;

sources of excess energy based on anomalous gas discharge;

mysterious processes of electric current passage through quantum wires, and possibility to create new electronic devices using a completely new electronic flow control principle based on the idea of the dependence of the tunnel effect on the wave function phase;

numerous new energy sources, as well as absolutely unexplainable today experimental phenomena, will be reviewed and analyzed.


Chapter 4 will briefly review a possible theory and a general approach to the chemical catalysis problem. Many chemical catalysis problems exist today, but on the whole the problem remains absolutely unclear, because it is not at all comprehensible where additional energy for chemical reactions comes from. Chemical reactions of  polysaccharide decomposition (lysozyme) are known, which disrupt the connection energy of up to 3 el-V. For water decomposition, thrice-weaker connection has to be broken. If such a water-decomposing catalyst is found (and the UQT can offer steps in the right direction), it will bring about a revolutionary change in motor transport and energy. There are reports that such catalysts have already been found, and an automobile operating on simple water without using any additional energy is being tested in Japan.

Many catalysis theories conceal energy shortage, and thus are unable to make both ends meet, since practically all the existing science is built on conservation laws, which have heretofore been regarded as unshakable. Constant progress of the scientific knowledge leads, however, to limited applicability of these fundamental laws. Nature once already made such a trick with the laws for the Mankind; just remember the story of weak interactions, and the chaos they made in physics. The existing conservation laws are the few things that survived the chaos. It is but natural that the Newton conservation laws will not be influenced by any science developments.

We would like to remind that the standard quantum theory predicts only a probability for isolated events, and there are no conservation laws for them. That is why to create inexhaustible energy sources you can just be able to collect events with the required result, e.g. for energy generation, and then all the energy requirements of the mankind could be solved by a method totally friendly for the environment. Mass usage of such technologies in the future will raise the problem of heat environmental pollution, since nearly all the resultant energy always finds itself in the thermal energy garbage heap. The UQT, unlike the standard quantum mechanics (just allowing for creation of new energy sources), offers the ways of doing it.


The book will be authored by Russian Professors of physics and mathematics, and will be meant for physicists, mathematicians, and restless engineers, who often shock the official science with their experiments and devices.

Nearly all the principal ideas and results of the book were published by some of the authors in different magazines, or at international conferences. We shall enumerate only part of such publications:



1.                  L.G. Sapogin. “Deuteron Interaction in Unitary Quantum Theory”. “On the Mechanism of Cold Nuclear Fusion”, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Vol. 4, Theory and Special Topics Papers TR-104188-V4, July (1994), (Hawaii).

2.                  L.G. Sapogin. “Deuteron Interaction in Unitary Quantum Theory”. “On the Mechanism of Cold Nuclear Fusion”, Fusion Source Book. International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources, Belarusian State University. Minsk, Belarus, May 24-26 (1991).

3.                  L.G. Sapogin. “Unitary Field and Quantum Mechanics”, Investigation of Systems (in Russian), Vladivostok, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, NO. 2, p.54 (1973).

4.                  L.G. Sapogin. “On Unitary Quantum Mechanics”, Nuovo Cimento, vol. 53A, No. 2, p. 251 (1979).

5.                  L.G. Sapogin. “A Unitary Quantum Field Theory”, Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, vol. 5, No. 4, 285 (1980).

6.                  L.G. Sapogin. “A Statistical Theory of Measurements in Unitary Quantum Mechanics”, Nuovo Cimento, vol. 70B, No. 1, p. 80 (1982).

7.                  L.G. Sapogin. “A Statistical Theory of the Detector in Unitary Quantum Mechanics”, Nuovo Cimento, vol. 71B, No. 3, p. 246 (1982).

8.                  V.A. Boichenko, L.G. Sapogin. “On the Equation of the Unitary Quantum Theory”, Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, vol. 9, No. 3, 221 (1984).

9.                  L.G. Sapogin, V.A. Boichenko. “On the Solution of One Nonlinear Equation”, Nuovo Cimento, vol. 102B, No. 4, p.433 (1988).

10.              L.G. Sapogin, V.A. Boichenko. “On the Charge and Mass of Particles in Unitary Quantum Theory”, Nuovo Cimento, vol. 104A, No.10, p. 1483 (1991).

11.              L.G. Sapogin. “Visual Microcosm”, Tekhnika Molodezhi, No. 1, p. 41 (1983).

12.              L.G. Sapogin. “On One of the Energy Generation Mechanisms in Unitary Quantum Theory”. Infinite Energy [E. Mallove, editor], vol. 1, No. 2, p. 38 (1995); Proceedings of the ICCF5, p. 361, April 9-13 (1995), Monte-Carlo; Proceedings of the 2nd Russian Conference CNFNT (in Russian) p. 18-24, Sochi, September 19-23 (1994); Cold Fusion, No. 11, p. 10 (1995).

13.              L.G. Sapogin, I.V. Kulikov. “Cold Nuclear Fusion in the Unitary Quantum Theory”, Chinese Journal of Nuclear Physics, vol. 17, No. 4, p. 360-370 (1995).

14.              L.G. Sapogin. “Energy Generation Processes and Cold Nuclear Fusion in Terms of the Schrodinger Equation”, Chinese Journal of Nuclear Physics, vol. 19, No. 2, p. 115-120, 1997.

15.              L.G. Sapogin. “Energy Generation Processes and Cold Nuclear Fusion in Terms of the Schrodinger Equation”, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion. Progress in New Hydrogen Energy, October 13-18 (1996), Japan, vol. 2, p. 595-600.

16.              L.G. Sapogin. “The Theory of Excess Energy in PACD Reactor. In: Proceedings of ICCF-7, Vancouver, April 1998; Infinite Energy, No. 20, 1998, p. 49.

17.              L.G. Sapogin. “Is This Really True?” Journal “Infinite Energy”, issue 32, 2000.

18.              L.G. Sapogin,  Yu.A. Ryabov, V.V. Graboshnikov, New Source of Energy from  

            the Point of  View of Unitary Quantum Theory, Journal of New Energy  

            Technologies, published by Faraday Laboratories Ltd, issue #3(6), 2002.

19.              L.G. Sapogin,  Yu.A. Ryabov, V.V. Graboshnikov, New Source of Energy from the Point of View of Unitary Quantum Theory, Journal of New Energy, vol.6, #2,2001.

20.              L.G. Sapogin, Yu.A. Ryabov,”Spontaneous Polarization of some Glasses and   

            Inexhaustible    Energy Source of Direct Current”. Journal of New Energy

            Technologies, published by Faraday Laboratories Ltd, #9, p.14-18,2002.

                                            Authors:        Professor L.G. Sapogin.

                                                                 Professor Y.A. Ryabov

                                                                 Professor V.A. Boichenko

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Download: Article "New Sources of Energy from the Point of View of Unitary Quantum Theory" by Sapogin, Ryabov and Graboshnikov (0.5 Mb).

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